Lloyd Potter
Texas State Demographer

2020 Count Question Resolution (CQR) and the 2020 Post-Census Group Quarters Review (PCGQR) programs

A Review of the Texas Demographic Center’s Participation

After the 2020 Census, the U.S. Census Bureau launched the 2020 Count Question Resolution (CQR) and the 2020 Post-Census Group Quarters Review(PCGQR) programs.  The Census CQR and PCGQR programs allow states and local jurisdictions to submit proposed corrections on housing unit counts and boundary errors that may have occurred during the 2020 Census. The Texas Demographic Center (TDC) shared information about the programs through various avenues (conferences, emails, newsletters, and a webinar) to encourage local governmental entities to participate.  In addition, the Governor’s office authorized TDC to conduct a review of all group quarters within the state and submit our findings to the PCGQR and CQR programs. Several other local governmental units throughout the state also submitted proposed corrections to the CQR program.

TDC received a response from the U.S. Census Bureau on the PCGQR submission in November 2023, followed by the CQR results in December 2023. Below is a summary of the U.S. Census Bureau’s response to our submission:

Check Mark
Our PCGQR submission was "approved," indicating that at least some part of our submission was found to be in scope and accepted for correction. However, as stated on the U.S. Census Bureau’s website, “due to the confidentiality requirements of Title 13”, no further information would be provided.
Pen and Square
Our CQR challenge led to the revision of the housing unit counts, group quarter counts, and population counts of 10 municipalities that were copied on the notification emails from the U.S. Census Bureau. These revisions affect at least five housing units, five group quarter facilities, and a little over one thousand population counts, mainly due to incorrect address locations or misclassifications between a housing unit and a group quarter facility.

Total Housing Units (HUs)

Governmental Unit (GU) Name Original 2020
Census Counts
Revised Counts Change
Lacy-Lakeview City, TX 3,060 3,062 2
Waco City, TX 58,107 58,105 -2
Baytown City, TX 32,894 32,892 -2
San Saba City, TX 1,209 1,208 -1

Total Group Quarters (GQs)

Governmental Unit (GU) Name Original 2020
Census Counts
Revised Counts Change
Arlington City, TX 110 111 1
Grand Prarie City, TX 29 28 -1
Anthony Town, TX 2 4 2
Vinton Village, TX 3 1 -2
Mexia City, TX 13 12 -1
Smithsville City, TX 0 1 1

Total Population

Governmental Unit (GU) Name Original 2020
Census Counts
Revised Counts Change
Arlington City, TX 394,266 394,324 58
Grand Prarie City, TX 196,100 196,042 -58
Lacy-Lakeview City, TX 6,988 6,990 2
Waco City, TX 138,486 138,484 -2
Anthony Town, TX 3,671 4,520 849
Vinton Village, TX 2,684 1,835 -849
Baytown City, TX 83,701 83,695 -6
Mexia City, TX 6,893 6,858 -35
San Saba City, TX 3,117 3,116 -1
Smithsville City, TX 3,922 4,036 114
Thumbs Up
The addresses of a number of group quarter facilities may have also been corrected based on the information we provided. Although we were not provided information on these cases, they contribute to the improvement of the Master Address File (MAF) maintained and updated by the U.S. Census Bureau. An accurate MAF is essential to several important Census products, including the widely used American Community Survey (ACS) and the upcoming 2030 Decennial Census.

Although the U.S. Census Bureau Post-Enumeration Survey suggests that Texas may have been undercounted by 1.9% in the 2020 Decennial Census, it is important to note that the CQR and the PCGQR were not designed to add housing units and populations that have been missed in the 2020 Decennial Census Operation. The results will not change the 2020 Census population count for the State. However, our submission will contribute to more accurate data on housing units, group quarter facilities and boundaries for the annual population estimates program.

An accurate census is essential for fair political representation, equitable distribution of resources, and informed policy decisions. It is critical for local governments to participate in the U.S. Census Bureau programs, such as the Local Update for Census Addresses (LUCA), leading up to the 2030 Census. As a liaison between the U.S. Census Bureau and the State of Texas, the Texas Demographic Center will continue to use its expertise to educate and provide support to the public with the most up-to-date information to ensure accurate population counts for Texas.